How To’s


Helping Chicks Thrive
Young chicks must have a brooder for warmth and protection.
Cover flooring with 4 to 6 inches of pine shavings to aid in disease prevention.
Place brooder in draft-free location.
Place an incandescent bulb about a foot above the box floor to provide heat.
Raise the height of the light as your chicks grow, because their need for artificial heat will diminish as they grow feathers.
Clean fresh water is the most important thing to give your chicks.
Check water levels daily to be sure your chicks are consuming enough.
1 to 16 weeks feed Chick Starter/Grower.
16 weeks and older feed Layer Pellet or Crumble and Scratch grains.
Give your hens oyster shell to help maintain their calcium levels and grit to help them digest their food.

Care Tips for Healthy Hens
Hens will perform best if they have room to live and roam, nutritious feed, fresh water, and a safe, comfortable coop to nest and roost.  Your coop should have a minimum of four square feet of space per hen, and one perch and one nest box for every four or five hens. Give the birds a place to take a dust bath. Chickens tolerate temperature extremes but will suffer in cold winter drafts or stifling summer heat. Make sure the coop is free of drafts during the winter and well ventilated in the summer. Protect your chickens from predators by keeping them penned within good, sturdy fencing and closing the coop door each evening after your flock goes to roost.

Disease Prevention in Poultry
North Valley School info
Nutritious feed, access to fresh, clean water, and  adequate housing are important to the health of your flock. Good management and sanitation practices are essential as well. Proper ventilation in the brooder and coop will reduce moisture and disease organisms. Caked or wet litter should be removed as soon as it forms to keep the house clean and dry.For most backyard poultry enthusiasts, diseases are rare as long as the flock doesn’t come into contact with other flocks. The most common disease for young, unmedicated flocks is coccidiosis, which is characterized by diarrhea, unthriftiness and some mortality. A medicated chick feed can help prevent coccidiosis.
A rigid sanitation program can help prevent parasites. If internal parasites become a problem, products to treat them are available from your feed dealer.Check your flock daily to spot diseases or parasites so you can start treatment right away. For more information about identifying, preventing and treating poultry diseases and parasites, contact your local veterinarian. Your Nutrena® dealer can help you choose the right feed to support the nutritional needs of your flock.


Feeding Instructions

  • Start lambs at a rate of 1% of bodyweight per head per day (approx. 1/4 lb.).
  • Gradually increase to 3% of bodyweight per head per day (approx. 3/4 lb.) over a period of 2 to 3 weeks.
  • Feed free-choice hay to start and reduce hay as lambs come on feed.
  • Feed breeding or lactating sheep to maintain desired body condition. Offer 1 lb. per 3 to 4 lbs. of milk produced.
  • Lambs should be vaccinated for enterotoxemia before going on full feed.
  • Feed to growing/finishing lambs as the sole ration.
  • Introduce gradually to newly weaned lambs or those that have not been on high energy rations.
  • Limited hay (1/4 to 1/2 lb. per head per day) may be fed.
  • Salt should be available free choice.
  • Have clean, fresh water available at all times.


Feeding Instructions

  • Start kids at a rate of 1% of bodyweight per head per day (approx. 1/4 lb.).
  • Gradually increase to 3% of bodyweight per head per day (approx. 3/4 lb.) over a period of 2 to 3 weeks.
  • Feed free-choice hay to start and reduce hay as kids come on feed.
  • Feed breeding or lactating goats to maintain desired body condition. Offer 1 lb. per 3 to 4 lbs. of milk produced.
  • Feed to growing/finishing kids as the sole ration.
  • Introduce gradually to newly weaned kids or those that have not been on high energy rations.
  • Limited hay (1/4 to 1/2 lb. per head per day) may be fed.
  • Salt should be available free choice.
  • Appropriate mineral may be offered to breeding and lactating goats.
  • Have clean, fresh water available at all times.


Pigs weighing 40 to 175 pounds are referred to as growing pigs. From 175 pounds to market weight (about 280 pounds) pigs are called finishing pigs. As a pig grows, the total amount of dietary protein it needs each day also increases; pigs should be switched from the grower (nutrient dense/more protein) to the finisher (less dense) diet when they weigh about 175 pounds.Pigs should be self-fed via a trough and this allows them to grow as quickly as possible. Pigs will continue to eat and eat until they are full and its important to let them eat as much as they want. Feeding them yourself might lead to undernourishment as you might think “ohh they have had enough.” But they will know when that have had enough. Let your pigs self eat by creating a deep and big trough for them to eat from.Water is the most important part of a pig’s diet. One-half to two-thirds of a pig’s body is water weight. Pigs must be given all the water they can drink. Water is as important to pigs as it is to people.Using this information, you’ll be able to feed your pigs the right food and create healthy pigs that will ensure they grow large and fat so when it comes time to slaughter them, their meat will be the best it could have been. Just a like a proper diet is important to plants and people, so it is important to pigs. Make sure to feed them the right food.

Beef Cattle

  • Always make ration changes gradually to allow time for cattle to adapt.
  • Increase the intake of grain or high-energy feed by no more than 1 pound (.454 kg) per head per day.
  • Feed 2 times per day, at the same time each day.
  • Feed cattle only what they will eat before the next feeding. Do not allow feed to build up in the bunk and get moldy.
  • Keep hay available at all times and do not hesitate to feed a little extra hay to fill cattle when their appetite seems unusually high.
  • Clean, fresh water should available at all times.


What should I feed my horse?
Horse forage/feeds can be divided into three categories: pasture, hay, and concentrates.
The most natural for horse is good quality pasture. Most mature horses will do well on pasture alone if they have sufficient grazing. Optimize the amount of grazing by dividing your pasture into sections and rotating your horses.
Hay is the basic food of domestic horses. Only good quality hay is a must. Make sure the bales are clean and is mold free. Feeding moldy hay can cause colic and dusty hay can cause respiratory problems. (Horses only have1 stomach, unlike cattle which have 4 stomach’s, so they are very prone to colic if poor hay is fed.)  It is a good idea to buy a stock pile of hay at a time to keep the hay consistent to your horses.  Switching hays can be hard on your horse.
The type of hay you will be feeding depends partly on the area you live in, and what the farmers grow in your area.  Grass hay, alfalfa hay, grass/alfalfa mix and wheat hay are our main choices.  Timothy and oats are available in other areas and/or stores.  Cubes and pellets can also be fed as a forage.  Do not feed you horse grass clipping as they can cause colic and founder.
Hay alone cannot provide enough nutrition for pregnant or nursing mares, hard-working horses and foals. Hay/forage should be the bulk of the diet.  Use grains (concentrates) such as oats,wheat, and/or barley to supplement their diet. Sweet feed (mixed with molasses) and (pellets,cubes) can be feed for every stage of a horse’s life.  Beet pulp can provides additional bulk. Beet pellets must be soaked before feeding to allow them to expand.

Dose my horse need anything else?
Yes: Salt & minerals free-choice. You can buy a variety of other vitamin,mineral and supplements for your horse.. Horses need lots of fresh drinking water all the time.

How much food should I feed?
Split the feeding into at least two meals. That is hay and grains or supplements.  The amount of food a horse will need, depending on size, breed, age, and activity. Common sense and ongoing awareness of your horse health and body condition will let you know of you need to make a changes in the horse food intake. In the winter, look with your hands as well as your eyes.  A heavy winter coat can hide a thin horse. Feel under that hair. If you are unsure how much to feed your horse, ask you veterinarian.

Can a horse eat to much?
Yes: Overfeeding can be a problem. It can cause and lead to founder or laminitis and colic. Keep an eye on your horse weight and adjust meal size as needed. In some way a fat horse is as unhealthy an a thin one.

Is there anything else I should know about feeding my horse?
Find a good feed store that has all the hay and grains, that you need to feed you, horses Fine a diet that works for your horse and stick with it. Make any changes in feed slowly, spread out over several days. Keep to a regular schedule on the horses wormer and feet trims.  See you veterinarian for the horse teeth.

For more help check with you feed store were you live for help with your hay & grains. Or check with your veterinarian.

Most of the above information courtesy of